Spanish Descriptive Adjectives
Getting Nouns and Adjectives in Order
One of the biggest differences between English and Spanish is the order of the adjectives and nouns.
In English, you say “white horse.” In Spanish, you say “horse white” (caballo blanco).
Descriptive words always come after the noun they describe (such as gato gordo, “fat cat”).
Here are some common descriptive words.
The two most common words used to link nouns and descriptive words are “ser” (to be—a permanent condition) and “estar” (to be—a temporary state).
La señora es rubia. (Use “ser” because the woman’s hair color is a stable characteristic.)
The woman is blond.
Adjust the Adjective to Suit the Noun
Adjectives in Spanish reflect the characteristics of the noun. For example, if the noun is feminine, the adjective will have a feminine ending. If the noun is plural, the adjective will have a plural form.
Examine the examples above. In the first example, the noun “caballos” is masculine and plural. Therefore, the adjective “grandes” is in a masculine plural form. In the second example, the noun “señora” is feminine and singular. Therefore, the adjective “rubia” is also feminine and singular.
Adjectives that End in –o or –a
Adjectives ending in –o are already in masculine form. To change to the feminine form of the adjective, you need to change the –o to –a. To make an adjective plural, simply add “s”.
Por ejemplo … lento (slow)
Adjectives that End in –e
Adjectives ending in –e or any consonant will not change their form no matter what the gender of the noun. In other words, their masculine and feminine forms are the same. Nevertheless, they do change according to whether the noun is singular or plural. To convert the singular form to the plural, simply add an “s” to the ending.
Por ejemplo: fuerte (strong)
What Country are You From?
Descriptive adjectives are also used to describe the nationality of people. Review the examples below:
Note that in Spanish, unlike English, adjectives of nationality are not capitalized.
You can also express your nationality using the phrase Soy de… (I’m from…).
Describing How Much in General
You also use adjectives to describe quantity. Unlike descriptions of qualities, these adjectives are usually placed before the noun. Some examples are:
Short and Simple: Adjectives like BUEN and MAL
Adjectives that are very common, simple, and short may go before the noun in some instances.
For example, you may place the following adjective either before or after the noun:
• grande/gran (big, great) • malo/mal (bad) • bueno/buen (good)
The above adjectives will change their structure if placed before a noun by dropping off their final syllable (i.e., -de or –o).
Big or Great? Using GRAN and GRANDE
The meaning of the adjective grande may change from “big” to “great” depending on whether it is placed in front of or after the noun.