I was wondering why the words with the letter Qaf, are written without the Q when transliterated into English. For example, pen, is qalam in Arabic, but it was transliterated as alam, and sometimes as 2alam. And sometimes, the q is replaced with just an apostrophe (waqt, meaning time, is transliterated as wa't)
Which leads me to my next question: Is the 2 used for both the letters hamza and qaf? Sometimes I see the 2 and sometimes I don't. For example, in lesson 7.6 under language & culture I see "before that" spelled as "abl kida" but it's written with a qaf in Arabic. Whereas I see aleph with hamza on top of it written as 2oda (under the writing lesson "aleph, beh, teh, theh").
Thanks for clearing up the confusion (Sorry if that was too long),