2. S'ENTENDRE - pronominal verb
Is it idiomatic? Debatable. I lean more towards no, s'entendre is a normal reflexive or reciprocal verb (depends on context and the preposition that follows) and I will explain why. Many sources indicate that it is idiomatic because the meaning of entendre is ‘to hear’; when we add the pronoun its meaning changes and that is the definition of an idiomatic verb.
However, older meanings of the word include ‘to understand’ and ‘to be tender towards’, and if we make those definitions reflexive then we get closer to the modern day meaning - ‘to get on/along with’. So, that is my ‘gripe’ if you will, that most classifications don't take into account the older definitions.
7. AUTANT QUE JE SACHE
Autant is difficult to translate succinctly so I will provide a list of translations. It can be translated as:
- as far as
- as many/much as
- however many/much
- just as many/much
It comes originally from Latin meaning ‘another as great’.
8. S’HABITUER - to get used to
Let me just clarify the difference between the two. S'habituer à means ‘to get used to' and s'y habituer means ‘to get used to it’. The preposition that follows this verb is 'à', while ‘y’ is used as a direct object pronoun. Let me use examples to show you:
- Il s'habitue à son nouveau travail. (He is getting used to his new job.)
- Il a un nouveau travail et il s'y habitue. (He has a new job and he is getting used to it.)
‘Y’ is used in the second example to replace ‘a new job’, so that we don't have to repeat it again. When we are using ‘y’ to replace the direct object, we therefore do not need the proposition à.
9. RESTER PRUDENT - not a set phrase
This isn't a set phrase and would change depending on gender and number of the subject.
10. EN CE QUI CONCERNE - concerning
- En ce qui concerne l'hotel, je te laisse le choix. (As far as the hotel is concerned, I'll leave it up to you.)
This is a very flexible phrase which can be used at the start, middle or end of a phrase, so don't be too concerned about not using it ‘correctly’.
11. VENIR DE - just, about to
Venir de + infinitive is used to express the recent past or used the same way we say ‘to have just done something’.
12. DE BOUTEILLES
In the negative, all partitive article (du, de la, de l', des) become de in the negative or d' if the noun begins with a vowel or a muted h. For example:
- Je mange des pommes. (I eat apples.)
- Je ne mange pas de pommes. (I don't eat apples.)
13. VEUILLEZ - Vouloir in the imperative
There is nothing advanced here, it is simply the vouloir in the imperative (click this link and scroll down to the bottom), so no new scary concepts. However, what may be slightly different is the way it is used. Counter-intuitively, vouloir in the imperative is less of a command and more of a polite request, the equivalent of our ‘please would you’. The example you provided:
- Veuillez nous excuser. (Please would you excuse us.) This is the more literal translation.
14. TENIR À FAIRE - to be keen or anxious to do something
Tenir à faire (or any other verb in the infinitive) is a structure that means ‘to be keen or anxious to do something’. However, remember that tenir also means ‘to hold or maintain’, so bear that in mind when I translate your example again a little more literally:
- Je tiens à vous prévenir. - I hold firm/maintain to warn you.
15. DE LA PLACE
The translation you have was not provided, so I am going to translate it as I would first.
- Est-ce que vous avez encore de la place pour aujourd'hui après-midi? (Do you have some space left for today in the afternoon?)
Remember de la is a partitive article which means ‘some’, while place means ‘space’ or ‘room’, so together it is ‘some space’. Of course, without context I cannot be sure, but it sounds to me like someone is reserving a table or booking an appointment etc.
I know this doesn't answer your original question, but I just wanted to clarify that de la place does not mean ‘left’. In the above sentence ‘encore’ would be the equivalent of ‘still’ or ‘left’.
16. CROIRE EN SOI - not the same as se croire.
I'm going to break down the definitions of the base verb, reflexive and the expression. I will just use English examples to make sure the distinction is as clear as possible.
- Croire means ‘to believe’ as in, ‘I believe that there are better places to live.’
- Se croire means ‘to believe oneself’ as in, ‘She believe herself to be very clever.’
- Croire en soi mean ‘to believe in oneself’.
17. AUTANT v. TANT
Autant means ‘as many/much as’ and is used most commonly in comparisons, while tant means ‘so many/much’ and is used most commonly to intensify or in hyperbole.
- Il a déjà fait autant que toi. (He has already done as much as you.)
- Il a déjà tant fait. (He has already done so much.)
- Il a autant d'amis que toi. (He has as many friends as you.)
- Il a tant d'amis. (He has so many friends.)
I hope this helps!