The next group of defining words, “of the,” “of,” “some,” “ several,” or “any” have lots of different uses, and once again, they change according to whether the thing or things you are talking about are masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
The root word “de” is very versatile indeed , and generally changes form as follows to mean “of” and “of the.”
Before we carry on, it’s worth discussing some points of pronunciation, because the word “de” can be a slippery one and tends to change its own sound and the sound of surrounding words when they all get together.
When speaking French, words must be linked to one another by sound so that they flow. When there are too many vowel sounds together, they are simply eliminated. In French, the expression that’s used to explain this principle is “**faire la liaison entre les mots**,” which means, “to make connections between words.”
As you get used to the various forms of “ de,” as it is used in “of,” and “of the,” you’ll start noticing lots of examples of “la liaison.”
Vowels can’t follow straight on from one word to another, so if you see a word ending in a vowel, and the next word beginning with a vowel, be alert! We have given you two examples so far: L’invité and l’enfant start with a L’ instead of a Le.
This is because Le would be followed by the sound i in "invité", and by the sound e in "enfant", and would be grammatically and phonetically incorrect. Try saying “Le invité” and “Le enfant”and you’ll notice how jerky it sounds.
A very similar principle applies when using “of” and “of the” with a noun like “Le garçon.” The word “of” is “de” and the word “boy” is “le garcon.” But “of the boy,” meaning “belonging to the boy” isn’t “de le garçon” as you might expect, but “du garçon.” “De le” always gets shortened to “du.” It’s really because “de” and “le” sound odd so close together.
In other words, when the sound of two vowels together clashes, such as “de le,” a kind of shortcut rule applies, making it “du” for the purpose of sounding more fluid. For feminine words, “de la” doesn’t change, unless the word begins with a vowel, when “de la” becomes “de l’.”
You will also note from the following examples that a literal translation has been included in brackets, because there is no equivalent in French for the use of the apostrophe as it is used in English.
The children’s game, for example, is literally translated as the game of the children. This is where “de,” in its various forms as explained above, comes into action.
Rocket Record lets you perfect your French pronunciation. Just listen to the native speaker audio and then use the microphone icon to record yourself. Once you’re done, you’ll get a score out of 100 on your pronunciation and can listen to your own audio playback. (Use a headset mic for best results.) Problems? Click here!
Le jeu des enfants.
The children's game. (The game of the children)
Le jeu de l'enfant.
The child's game. (The game of the child)
Le jeu de la fille.
The girl's game. (The game of the girl)
Le jeu du garçon
The boy's game. (The game of the boy)
Le jeu de l'invité
The guest's game. (The game of the guest)
Le goût du fromage. (masculine)
The taste of the cheese.
La couleur du vin. (masculine)
The color of the wine.
La fraîcheur du pain. (masculine)
The freshness of the bread.
La qualité de la confiture. (feminine)
The quality of the jam.
La beauté de l'actrice. (feminine + vowel)
The beauty of the actress.
As well as being used to say “of” or “of the” in the plural, as we saw above, "du," "de la", "d’", "de l’" and "des" are also used to mean “some” and “several.”
In effect, this is when the article “a” or “an” becomes a plural, to mean more than just one.
Du fromage (masculine)
Du vin (masculine)
Du pain (masculine)
De la confiture (feminine)
De l'argent (masculine + vowel)
De l'omelette (feminine + vowel)
That's more than enough technical stuff for one day. You've been a most excellent student for sticking through the tricky parts!
A plus tard! (See you later!)
Marie-Claire Rivière and the Rocket French Team
Reinforce your learning from this lesson with the Rocket Reinforcement activities! These activities are scientifically designed to improve your knowledge and retention of French.