Maestro/ maestra....which translate directly to "Master" but is used a lot to describe a teacher.
Profesor/profesora...directly translate to "professor" which derivates from the latin "person who professes or teaches something".
Also , in higher levels of education or university, sometimes we use the word "Catedrático" (cathedratic), even though this is also used to the person who gives a "catedra" (lecture) in a church, like a bishop or some high authority in a "catedral" (cathedral).
SO THAT MEANS you can use profesor (a), maestro(a), the more informal "profe" or the very formal catedrático(a).
....Mother is either Madre, mamá, mami or simply ma! it depends of how much you love your mother, mom, mah, mum, mami , momma, etch