Excellent Grammar videos

Babarondev

I have found series of very detailed videos for those people who are struggling with Spanish Grammar, even though they have been through the course materials. I intend to watch them and if you want, I can summarize what I have learnt. I am going to start with prepositions as I am not quite clear when to use what

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dV2t3glhqX4&list=PLS0Z_G7-cH5S5ekAL8aK7UbbAjxRqnHgX

Babarondev

Here is my summary of the preposition video. I would recommend that you watch it yourself. It's very detailed but does not cover everything you need to know about prepostiions. Merely some rules. I got quite a lot out of watching it

Prepositions effectively modify elements in a sentence and indicate relationships between elements in a sentence.

They have a modifying effect on both verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and pronouns.

They can be broadly categorised into 5 categories:

Time:

Antes de(before)
Bebemos antes del partido (we drank before the match)

Despues de (after)
Pagamos despues de recibimos la Cuenca

Location:

En(at)
El partido tendra en el estadio

Direction:

The train goes through the city.

El tren va por la ciudad

Purpose:

For

Ese regale es para mi Sobrina

Possesion:
De 

La casa de mi mama


In English prepositions can be a minefield as well. And have different meanings in different contexts. This is very much the case with Spanish as well. 

Some prepositions don't translate well between English and Spanish
 E.g.In English we say to fall in love with. In Spanish se dice enamorarse de

E.g. Estoy enamorado de espanol

Not estoy enoamroado con espanol

Some are similar like with. In English, you would say I would like coffee with milk. En espanol, se dice me gustaria cafe con leche

Prepositions change the verb meaning:

Trabajo con muchos hombres
Trabajo en un hospital
Trabajo por in colegio Ayer
Trabajo para una empress a muy grande

The conjunction after the verb completely changes the meaning and use of the verb.

Most common prepositions

A

A - This means at or is an object marker (There is no use of object markers in English, those who know Hindi must be aware of the use of ko) a can function in the same way.

I kiss my girlfriend. Yo beso a mi Novia

I met Dave yesterday - Conoci a Dave Ayer

A can also mean to

I go to the beach- voy a la playa

Let's go to the church - vamos a la Iglesia

Can also mean at in certain contexts and can be confused with en.

I'm sitting at the table - Estoy sentando a la mesa

Can be used for time

The match is at 7:30 - El partido a las 7:30

A key thing is that when you meet someone or know some one use conocer a not conocer con

De

Can be used for of or from

I am from colombia - Yo soy de colombia

Can be possesive:

La casa de mi mama - My mother’s house


The result of an action:

I am tired of thinking - Estoy cansado de pensar

I cant take any more studying- no puedo mas de estudiar

En

Can be at or in

I am at my dad’s house- Estoy en la casa de mi papa

I live in London - Vivo en Londres

Jean lives in Paris- Jean vive en Paris

Con 

With and its quite similar to English 

I work with my wife-Trabajo con mi esposa


However if you speak to someone use hablar con

I speak to god everyday- Yo hablo con el dios todos los Dias

DO NOT USE HABLAR A

Sin:

This is like without.

I live without fear- Vivo sin miedo

Coffee without milk- Cafe sin leche


Hacia

Towards

The train is going towards grand canary- El tren va hacia el Gran Canaria

Let's sail towards the west- Vamos a navigation a vela hacia el oeste

Around 

The meeting starts around 7 pm - La reunion comenza hacia a las siete de la tarde

Location adjectives: 

Many of these prepositions are composite e.g. Debajo de (made up of two prepositions )

Antes de- before

Despues de - after

Delante de - in front of

Detras de - behind

I sleep behind the shed- Yo duermo detras del corbertizo

Frente a - In front of 

Mis padres estancia parados frente a mi

Cerca de - close to

I used to work close to my house- Trabajaba cerca de la casa a mi

Fuera de- outside

It's out of my control - La situation esta fuera de mi control

Dentro de- inside

Can also mean within a period of time

The packet will arrive with two weeks- El packete va a llegar dentro de dos semanas

Encima de- On top of/above

There are many books on the desk - Hay muchos libels encima del escritorio

The plane flies over France- El avion vuela encima de la Francia

Debajo de- under

The wombles live under the city- Los wombles given debajo de la ciudad

En vez de


Verbs and preposition combination:

You have to memorise the combinations but I will tell some of the ones that stood out for me.

In English, we say dream of but in Spanish they say sonar con

I dreamt of her- Sone con Ella

To laugh 

Reirse de

I laugh at children- Yo me rio de los ninos

Some verbs don't have a preposition e.g. Buscar.

I am looking for love- estoy buscando amor

Ir a- go

I'm going to town - yo voy al centro

Ayudar a - help

I like to help the poor- A mi me gusta a ayudar los powers

Tratar de- try

I have tried to forget your love- He tratado de olvidar tu amor

Cansarse- to tire/get tired

I got tired of walking - me canse de caminar

Pensar en- Think about

I think about my mums cooking- Yo pienso en la comida de mi mama

Adjectives:

Certain adjectives take on certain prepositions

Primer en- first

I came first in the race- yo fun el primero en acabar la carrera

Ultima en- Last

I came last in completing the exam - yo Fuji el ultimo en completar el examen

Rapido para- 

Los bomberos de Colombia son rapido para responder a las emergencias

Bueno buena para

My son is good for nothing- mi hijo es bueno para nada

Duolingo is bad for learning Spanish - duolingo es malo para appended espanol.

Ready for- listo/a para 

I am ready for marriage- estoy listo para casarme

Necesario para - necessary 

Learning grammar is necessary for gaining confidence in Spanish- Aprender la grammatica es necesario para tener confiencia en espanol

Pronouns and prepositions:

To me - para mi

To you- a ti

From you- de usted

En el/Ella

Conmigo- with me

Ella quiere hablar conmigo

Contigo - with you

Me gustaria hablar contigo

Consigo- with you him/her 3rd person


Superlatives:

Use de

I am the best in the family - Yo soy el mejor de la familia

I am the best dancer in the group - Yo soy el mejor bailador del grupo


Verbs w/o prepositions:

Mirar 
I look at the fish- miro los Pisces
Buscar
I look for love- busco el amor
Pedir
I ask for help
Pido la ayuda
Esperar
I have waited for love
He Esperado el amor


















CourtneyR12

Super helpful summary! Thanks!!

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