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Professor Jason - Relative pronouns




part 2


Used in both restrictive non restrictive clauses.
Restrictive clauses means that no comma
Restrictive clause:She wanted the man that she met on the subway
Non restrictive clause: The professor, who has won awards, is talking at the town hall.
In English you not always need them but I SPanish you need them every time. There are no exceptions
In English you could say
she wants to marry the man (that) she met on the subway.
You don't need to use that
IN Spanish you need to say
Ella quiere casar con el hombre que conoció en el metro
Is the most widely used RP
Used for Whom, who, that and which
The shop that is opposite the park - La tienda que está opuesta del parque
The man who came is the high court judge- El hombre que vino es un Juez de corte alto
The cleaner that we hired is polish - La Asistenta que contramos es de Polonia
Used for who and whom and usually there is a preceeding prepostion
The people whom we stayed with were very nice - Las personas con quienes nos hospedamos eran muy amables
The woman to whom I gave my life left me- La mujer, a quien di mi vida , me dejo
The woman, to whom I lent all my things, left me -  La mujer, a quien preste todas mis cosas , me dejo
La que, el que, los que, las que
Used to identify a specific object or thing
Used more in casual everyday speech
Can be used to answwer question
De quien refieres?
El hombre el que tiene el auto maron
Whiich car?
Which man?
Which company?
The answwer would be el que, la que

The man that you hired yesterday is incompetent - el hombre el que tu contrataste ayer es incompetente
My friend who lives in Italy is dead - Mi amiga la que vive en Italia está muerta
I want the one you showed me before- Quiero eso el que me mostraste de antes
I liked the car I saw at the bottom of the street - Me gusto el auto el que vi en el fondo de la calle
The women with whom you were flirting with were prostitutes - Las mujeres con las que estaba coqueteando eran prostitutas
Lo que
Is used for what
I know what you did yesterday - yo se lo que hiciste ayer
I felt what he said was insensitive - yo me sento lo que dijo fue insensible
I know everything (what) I need to know about her - Yo se todo lo que necesito saber sobre ella

El cual, la cual, lo cual, los cuales
Which, who whom
Used for additional information hence non-restrictive clauses
More often used in formal speech and writing
The man who lives next to me is a crossdresser - El hombre el cual vive junto de mi es un travesti
I don't know nothing about the people you were talking about - NO conozco nada sobre la gente la cuales estaban hablando
Women who live in Sweden are pretty and blonde- Las mujeres las cuales viven en sueco son guapas y rubias
How to decide which one to use?
3 factors to consider:
1/. The antecedent: is it a thing or person
2/. Does a preposition precede the relative pronoun e.g. Con, de, end para
3/. Is the relative pronoun restrictive or nonrestrictive
Scenario 1: Restrictive clause, no preceding preposition, Thing(inanimate)
Use Que
I bought the car I saw on eBay - compre el auto que vi en eBay
I played with the ball that was in the garden - Juegue con la pelota que estaba en el jardín
I like the shirt you wore to the party - Me gusta esta camisa que tu usaste a la fiesta
Scenario 2: An inanimate thing, restrictive clause, preposition de, con, en
Use el que la que la cuál el cual, que etc
Vamos a ver la película de que te dije ayer
Vamos a leer la novela de la cual te hablé ayer
Vamos a debatir los eleciones de los cuales pasó en India
Vamos a leer la novela de la cual te hablé ayer
In all examples I have used pronoun de but you can use many others

Scenario 3: Thing(non-animate) and is non-restrictive
Use que or el cual la cual etc
The meeting that is going to start in 5 minutes will be very boring - la reunion, que comienza en 5 minutos, va a ser muy aburrida
The girl, who used to work for CSB, is going to share a desk with you - La chica, la cual trabajaba en CSB, va a compartir un escritorio con tigo
In the commas there is filler or superfluous or additional information
Scenario 4: Person, no prepositions, restrictive
Use Que
I need to contact the woman who is charge of the department - necesito contactar la mujer que está en cargo del departamento
Scenario 5: Person, Preposition, restrictive clause:
Lo que, La que, el cual, la cual los cuales
The woman who I spoke to yesterday is in the shop- La mujer de la que hablé ayer está en la tienda
There are the co-workers with whom I used to work with - Ellos son los colegios los que trabajaba
These are the women with whom I fought - Ellas son las mujeres con las cuales luchaba

Scenario 6 A persona and non-restrictive clause:
My friend, who usually always wears black, wore white to the party - Mi amiga, que casi siempre lleva negra, uso blanca a la fiesta
Can also use quien/es in fact that is in some ways better.

You can use que in most cases without exception
When you can't use Que:
2/.If the antecedent is a person and the preposition precedes relative pronoun
If you have a preposition, it is better to use quienes or lo que, cual form
You can use quien/es for most phrases with prepositions
E.g. you can say
Ella es la mujer al lado de quien quiero pasar el resto de mi vida - The al lado de means you cant use que.
Even if you have de or con it's better to use quien/es it sounds better
El es el candidato de que conversamos
El es el candidato de quien conversamos - This sounds better less awkward
In formal speech or writing use la que la cual
1/.When the antecedent is a thing e.g. book, film & a preposition other than a, con, de or en predendes relative pronoun
You can say que sometimes but intuitively is sounds awkward and vague
La película de que te hable ya no está en el cine
La película de la que te hable ya no está en el cine
We now will use sobre now DO NOT USE QUE
La película sobre la que hablábamos ya no está en el cine

La escuela a que asistí de niño está demolida - The school I attended as a child is demolished
La escuela a la que asistí de niño está demolida
La escuela a la cual asistí de niño está demolida - This is the best sounding form
To Summarize
IF Thing & preposition:
    El cual
    El que
IF Person & preposition:


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